In Part I I argue that the search and discovery of statistically significant relationships does not amount to explanation and is often misplaced in the social sciences because the variables which are purported to have effects on the outcome cannot be manipulated. Just to make sure that my message is not misinterpreted – I am not arguing for a fixation on maximizing R-squared and other measures of model fit in statistical work, instead of the current focus on the size and significance of individual coefficients. R-squared has been rightly criticized as a standard of how good a model is** (see for example here). But I am not aware of any other measure or standard that can convincingly compare the explanatory potential of different models in different contexts. Predictive success might be one way to go, but prediction is altogether something else than explanation. I don’t expect much to change in the future with regard to the problem I outlined. In practice, all one could hope for is some clarity on the part of the researchers whether their objective is to explain (account for) or find significant effects. The standards for evaluating progress towards the former objective (model fit, predictive success, ‘coverage’ in the QCA sense) should be different than the standards for the latter (statistical & practical significance and the practical possibility to manipulate the exogenous variables). Take the so-called garbage-can regressions, for example. These are models with tens of variables all of which are interpreted causally if they reach the magic…

Research Design Matters